Evaluation of different extraction methods for phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis


1 Industrial Biotechnology on Microorganism Research Department, Research Institute for Industrial Biotechnology, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR)-Mashhad branch, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of industrial Biotechnology on Microorganism Research , Research Institute for Industrial Biotechnology, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR)-Mashhad branch, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


C-Phycocyanin is a natural pigment that has several applications in food and cosmetic industry. Recent studies have also revealed the medicinal effects of this natural blue dye. In this study, Comparison effect of mechanical (freezing and thawing, sonication and bead milling) along with chemical (inorganic acid, buffers and sea salt) extraction methods were carried out on C-Phycocyanin concentrations to achieve the optimum conditions of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis . Our result authenticated that repeating temperature cycles obtained higher phycocyanin concentration which could observed clearly by unaided eye. The optimum condition for extraction is freezing and thawing method under -20 °C condition in five repeated cycles in comparison with liquid nitrogen at the same condition. The best solvent was determined sea salt solution then distilled water, PBS and TE buffer, respectively. Under optimize condition phycocyanin was extracted with a concentration of 0.29 mg/ml and purity ratio (A620/A280) of 3.42.


-A. Avila Jerley , Prabu DM (2015) Purification, characterization and antioxidant properties of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Scrutiny journal 2
-Antelo FS, Costa JA , Kalil SJ (2008) Thermal degradation kinetics of the phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Biochemical Engineering Journal 41:43-47
-Bhaskar SU, Gopalaswamy G , Raghu R (2005) A simple method for efficient extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Geitler
-Chethana S, Nayak CA, Madhusudhan M , Raghavarao K (2015) Single step aqueous two-phase extraction for downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Journal of food science and technology 52:2415-2421
-Colla L, Bertol C, Ferreira D, Bavaresco J, Costa J , Bertolin T (2016) Thermal and photo-stability of the antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis powder Brazilian Journal of Biology:0-0
-Dupuis Cet al. Effect of betaine, C-phycocyanin or physical activity on tumour growth of lung cancer in rats. In: Fourth International Congress of Translational Research in Human Nutrition ICTRHN, 2017. p np
-Furuki Tet al. (2003) Rapid and selective extraction of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis with ultrasonic cell disruption Journal of Applied Phycology 15:319-324
-Hemlata GP , Fareha B (2011) Studies on Anabaena sp. nccu-9 with special reference to phycocyanin J Algal Biomass Util 2:30-51
-hEocha CÓ (1963) Spectral properties of the phycobilins. I. Phycocyanobilin Biochemistry 2:375-382
-Herrera A, Boussiba S, Napoleone V , Hohlberg A (1989) Recovery of c-phycocyanin from the cyanobacteriumSpirulina maxima Journal of applied phycology 1:325-331
-Horvath H, Kovacs AW, Riddick C , Presing M (2013) Extraction methods for phycocyanin determination in freshwater filamentous cyanobacteria and their application in a shallow lake European journal of phycology 48:278-286
-Kissoudi M, Sarakatsianos I , Samanidou V (2017) Isolation and purification of food‐grade C‐phycocyanin from Arthrospira platensis and its determination in confectionery by HPLC with Diode Array Detection Journal of separation science
-Martelli G, Folli C, Visai L, Daglia M , Ferrari D (2014) Thermal stability improvement of blue colorant C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis for food industry applications Process Biochemistry 49:154-159
-Mitra S, Siddiqui WA , Khandelwal S (2015) C-Phycocyanin protects against acute tributyltin chloride neurotoxicity by modulating glial cell activity along with its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory property: A comparative efficacy evaluation with N-acetyl cysteine in adult rat brain Chemico-biological interactions 238:138-150
-Moraes CC, Sala L, Cerveira GP , Kalil SJ (2011) C-phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis wet biomass Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 28:45-49
-Patil G, Chethana S, Sridevi A , Raghavarao K (2006) Method to obtain C-phycocyanin of high purity Journal of Chromatography A 1127:76-81
-Rito‐Palomares M, Nunez L , Amador D (2001) Practical application of aqueous two‐phase systems for the development of a prototype process for c‐phycocyanin recovery from Spirulina maxima Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology 76:1273-1280
-Sarada R, Pillai MG , Ravishankar G (1999) Phycocyanin from Spirulina sp: influence of processing of biomass on phycocyanin yield, analysis of efficacy of extraction methods and stability studies on phycocyanin Process biochemistry 34:795-801
-Siegelman H, Kycia J , John AI (1978) Handbook of phycological method Handbook of Phycological Methods
Silva LA, Kuhn KR, Moraes CC, Burkert CA , Kalil SJ (2009) Experimental design as a tool for optimization of C-phycocyanin purification by precipitation from Spirulina platensis Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 20:5-12
-Silveira ST, Burkert JFdM, Costa JAV, Burkert CAV , Kalil SJ (2007) Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis using factorial design Bioresource technology 98:1629-1634
-Sivasankari S , Ravindran D (2014) Comparison of different extraction methods for phycocyanin extraction and yield from Spirulina platensis Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci 3:904-909
-Soni B, Trivedi U , Madamwar D (2008) A novel method of single step hydrophobic interaction chromatography for the purification of phycocyanin from Phormidium fragile and its characterization for antioxidant property Bioresource technology 99:188-194
-Vonshak A, Abeliovich A, Boussiba S, Arad S , Richmond A (1982) Production of Spirulina biomass: effects of environmental factors and population density Biomass 2:175-185
-Zhu Y, Chen X, Wang K, Li Y, Bai K, Kuang T , Ji H (2007) A simple method for extracting C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis using Klebsiella pneumoniae Applied microbiology and biotechnology 74:244-248