Diatom diversity in the spring and spring-fed river of the Tizab region (Central Alborz) Iran


Diatoms are the most diverse algae of the aquatic ecosystems and springs are of high value as the habit of high biodiversity and an important source of drinking for mankind. Therefore, study of the springs' algae flora is very important at the conservation view.  In this research, the diatom biodiversity of the Tizab Spring and the spring-fed river was studied for the first time. Thirty species were identified of which one species (Achnanthidium gracillimum) is a new record for diatom flora of Iran. The data revealed that the flora is much similar to the Karaj River flora. This similarity can be due to the close geographical locations as both rivers are located in the Central Alborz region. The distribution pattern of the species were studied in Iran based on the present references on the Iranian aquatic ecosystems. This study presented that two-third of the species had a widespread distribution. The comparison of the flora with known European and American database showed that most species are the elements of the northern hemisphere. Diatom biodiversity studies in the Central Alborz region is in its first steps. Therefore, much research should be performed to reveal the diatom biodiversity and the potential new species in the region.

diatom; Central Alborz; distribution; Tizab; Spring



Atazadeh, I., Sharifi, M. & Kelly, M.G. 2007. Evaluation of the trophic diatom index for assessing water quality in River Gharasou, western Iran. Hydrobiologia 589: 165-173.

Amidi S.M., Navai I.,Nazari zadeh M. 2013. Geological report of the Damavand map (1:25000). Ministry of industries, mine and trades, Geological survey of Iran.30pp. (in Persian).

Cantanoti M., Fureder L., Gerecke R., Juttner I., Cox E. J. 2012. Crenic habitats, hotspots for freshwater biodiversity conservation: toward an understanding of their ecology. Freshwater Science 31: 463-480

Comperé, P. (1981). Algues des deserts d'Iran. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique/Bulletin van de National Plantentuin België. 51: 3-40.

Lai G. G., Burato S., Padedda B.M., Zorza R., Pizzul E., Delgado C., Luglie A., Cantonati M. 2019. Diatom Biodiversity in Karst Springs of Mediterranean Geographic Areas with Contrasting Characteristics: Islands vs Mainland. Water.11: 1-21

Cheraghpour, J., Afsharzadeh, S., Sharifi, M., Ramezannejad Ghadi, A. & Masoudi, M. (2013). Phytoplankton diversity assessment of Gandoman wetland. Iranian Journal of Botany 19(2): 153–162.

Ghafouri M.R. 2003.Mineral water and mineral springs of Iran. University of Tehran press. Pp. 384 (in Persian).

Hirano, M. 1973. Freshwater Algae from Mesopotamia. Contu Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ 24: 2.

Jamaloo, F., Falahian, F. , Nejadsatari, T. & Majd, A. 2006. Study of diatom flora in Jajrood river. Sciences and Technology of Environment 26: 98-112 (in Persian).

Hofmann G., Werum M., Lange-Bertalot H. 2011. Diatomeen im Suswasser-Benthos von Mitteleuropa. Bestimmungs flora Kieselalgen fur die okologische Praxis. Uber 700 der haufigsten Arten und ihre Okologie. Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein. 908 pp.

Jamshidi Kh., Maasoomi R. O. Cartographers. Gomashi A. Cartography director. 1997. Geological map of Damavand. Geological survey of Iran. 1:100000 Series NO 6461.

Kheiri, S., Solak, C.N., Edlund, M.B., Spaulding, S., Nejadsattari, T., Asri, Y., Hamdi S.M.M. 2018a. Biodiversity of diatoms in the Karaj River in the Central Alborz, Iran. Diatom research. 33(3): 355-380.

Kheiri, S., Tavakoli, M., Oraghi-Ardebili Z. 2018b. Diatom flora of Marbareh River, Dez catchment, Lorestan, Iran. Journal of plant research. 31(3):516-528 (in Persian).

Kheiri, S.2019. Diatoms, the best indicators in biomonitoring the aquatic ecosystems. Iran Nature 4(4): 37-47 (in Persian).

Khosravi-Rineh M., Nejadsattari T., Fallahian, F., Khavarinejad, R., Mattaji. 2011. Identification of some different genera of diatoms and their realationships with Physicochemical factors in water of Haraz River. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 12(4): 151-162 (in Persian).

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. 1986. Bacillariophyceae, 1. Teil: Naviculaceae. In: H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynıg, D. Mollenhaues (eds), Suswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. 2(1): 1-876. G. Fischer Verlag, Stutgart New York.

Krammer K. & Lange-Bertalot H. 1988. Bacillariophyceae, 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynıg, D. Mollenhaues (eds), Suswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. 2(2): 1-596. G. Fischer Verlag, Stutgart New York.

Krammer K. & Lange-Bertalot H. 1991a. Bacillariophyceae, 3. Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. In: H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynıg, D. Mollenhaues (eds), Suswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. 2(3): 1-576. G. Fischer Verlag, Stutgart New York.

Krammer K. & Lange-Bertalot H. 1991b. Bacillariophyceae, 4. Teil: Achnanthaceae. Kritische Erganzungen zu Navicula (Lineolatae) und Gomphonema, Gesamtliteraturverzeichnis. In: H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynıg, D. Mollenhaues (eds), Suswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. 2(4): 1-437. G. Fischer Verlag, Stutgart New York.

Krammer, K. 1997a. Die cymbelloiden Diatomeen. Eine Monographie der weltweir bekannten Taxa. Teil 1. Allgemeines und Encyonema Part. Biblioth. Diatomol. 36: 1-382.

Krammer, K. 1997b. Die cymbelloiden Diatomeen. Eine Monographie der weltweir bekannten Taxa. Teil 2. Encyonema Part, Encyonopsis und Cymbellopsis. Biblioth. Diatomol. 37: 1-169.

Krammer K. 2003. Cymbopleura, Delicata, Navicymbula,Gomphocymbellopsis, Afrocymbella In: Diatoms of Europe, diatoms of European inland waters and comparable habitats (Ed. by H. Lange-Bertalot) Vol. 4. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell. 530 pp.

Lange-Bertalot H., Krammer K. 1989. Achnanthes Eine Monographie der Gattung. Vol. 18. Bibliotheca Diatomologica. 393 pp.

Lange-Bertalot H. 2001. The genus Navicula sensu stricto: 10 genera separated from Navicula sensu lato Frustulia. In: H. Lange-Bertalot (ed.), Diatoms of Europe 2: 1-526. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

Lange-Bertalot, H., Cavacini, P., Tagliaventi, N. & Alfinito, S., 2003. Diatoms of Serdinia. Iconographia Diatomologica 12: 1-438

Levkov, Z. 2009. Amphora sensu lato. In: H. Lange-Bertalot (ed.), Diatoms of Europe 5: 1-916. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

Masoudi, M., Ramezannejad Ghadi, A. & Riahi, H. 2011. Phytoplankton flora of Miankaleh wetland. Iranian journal of botany. 19: 153-162.

Moghadam, F. 1975. Diatoms as indicator of pollution in Zayandeh River, Iran. Proceedings of Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia. 127:281-297

Nejadsattari 2005. Diatom flora of Lake Neure, Iran. Diatom Research 20 (2): 313-333.

Nejadsattari, T., Shariatmadari, Z., Jamzad, Z. 2007. A study on Diatoms of the artificial ponds and lakes of National Botanical Garden, Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany 13 (1): 6-11.

Noroozi, J., Akhani, H. & Breckle S. W., 2008. Biodiversity and phytogeography of Alpine flora of Iran. Biodiversity Conservation.17(3): 493-521

Panahy-Mirzahasanlou, J., Nejadsattari, T., Ramezanpour, Z., Imanpour-Namin, J., Asri, Y. 2018. The epilithic and epipelic diatom flora of the Balikhli River, northwest Iran. Turkish Journal of Botany 42: 518–532.

Schneider, C.A., Rasband, W.S. & Eliceiri, K.W. 2012. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature methods 9(7): 671-675.

Shams, M., Afsharzadeh, S., Atici, T. 2012. Seasonal variations in Phytoplankton communities in Zayandeh-Rood Dam lake (Isfahan, Iran). Turkish Journal of Botany 36: 715-726.

Soltanpour-Gargari, A., Lodenius, M. & Hinz, F.2011. Epilithic diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from streams in Ramsar, Iran. Acta Botanica Croatica. 70(2):167-190.

Snyder, J.A., Wasylik, K., Fritz, S.C. & Wright, H.E. 2001. Diatom-based conductivity reconstruction and palaeoclimatic interpretation of a 40-ka record from Lake Zeribar, Iran. The Holocene 11(6): 737-745.

Wasyik 1975. Notes on the freshwater algae of Iran. Fragmenta floristica et geobotanica. 21 (3). 369-396.

Witkowski, A., Wasylikowa, K., Lange-Bertalot, H., Bak, M. 2007. Diatom paleolimnology of Lake Zeribar, Iran, in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. In: The palaeoecology of Lake Zeribar and surrounding areas western Iran, during the last 48000 years. (Ed. by K. Wasylikowa & A. Witkowski) Diatom Monographs. Vol. 8, ARG Gantner Verlag K.G, Ruggell. pp.187–235.

Zarei-Darki, B. 2009 a. Marine Species in the Algal Flora of the Anzali Swamp (Iran). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 35(3): 200-205.

Zarei-Darki, B. 2009 b. Algal flora of rivers in Iran. International Journal on Algae 11(2): 171-180.

Zarei-Darki, B. 2011a. Species composition and ecology of the diatoms in the Gavkhuni wetland (Iran). Bulletin of Kharkiv National Agrarian University. Series: Biology 1 (22): 110-117.

Zarei-Darki, B. 2011b. Algae of aquatic ecosystems of Iran. Payame-Alavi, Negar Isfhan. 323 pp (in Persian).

  • There are currently no refbacks.