Cyanobacteria are oxygenic, photosynthetic prokaryotes with unique potential to enhance plant growth, development, and productivity. The effects of Phormidium sp. ISC108 was evaluate on seed germination, seedling growth criteria and photosynthetic efficiency of maize. Phormidium sp. ISC108 was applied to soil via irrigation whereas control group was irrigated via sterilized water. A significant promotion in seed germination was observed in Phormidium sp. ISC108 treated maize seeds. Similarly, seedling growth indices of treated plants including biomass production, plant heights and leaf area significantly enhanced. Chlorophyll content as well as chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics was also positively influenced by Phormidium sp. ISC108 application. Quantum yield of photosynthesis, primary photochemical reactions, rate of exiton transfer to electron transport chain, yield of electron transport and performance index of photosynthetic apparatus significantly increased in response to Phormidium sp. ISC108 application in soil. However, values of thermal dissipation of absorbed light showed a significant reduction as a result of Phormidium sp. ISC108 treatment. Considering remarkable growth promoting properties, Phormidium sp. ISC108 may offer a feasible economical and environmental-friendly candidate as bio-fertilizer in sustainable maize production..
Adam MS. (1999). The promotive effect of the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum on the growth of some crop plants. Microbiologica polinica. 48: 163-171.
Aly MHA, Abd El-All Azza AM, Mostafa SS. (2008). Enhancement of sugar beet seed germination, plant growth, performance and biochemical compounds as contributed by algal extracellular products. Journal of Agricultural Sciecne, Mansoura University. 33 (12): 8429-8448.
Arnon DI. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology. 24: 1-15.
Bjorkman O and Demmig B. (1987). Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta. 170 (4): 489-504.
Dorador C, Vila I, Imhoff JF, Witzel KP. (2008). Cyanobacterial diversity in Salar de Huasco, a high altitude saline wetland in northern Chile: an example of geographical dispersion? FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 64(3): 419-432.
Ghotbi-Ravandi AA, Shahbazi M, Pessarakli M, Shariati M. (2016). Monitoring the photosystem II behavior of wild and cultivated barley in response to progressive water stress and rehydration using OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence transient. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 39 (8): 1174-1185.
Ghotbi-Ravandi AA, Shahbazi M, Shariati M, Mulo P. (2014). Effects of mild and severe drought stress on photosynthetic efficiency in tolerant and susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 200(6): 403-415.
Ghotbi-Ravandi AA, Shariati M, Shahbazi M, Shobbar ZS. (2019). Expression pattern and physiological roles of plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) in wild and cultivated barley genotypes under drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 162: 319-320.
Grzesik M and Romanovska-Duda Z. (2015). Ability of cyanobacteria and green algae to improve metabolic activity and developmentof willow plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 24 (3):1003-1012.
Hassan EA and Morcos MM. (2006). Bioenhancement effect of cyanobacteria on rice seeds germination and seedlings growth. Journal of Agricultural Sciecne Mansoura University. 31 (8): 5351-5361.
Hussain A and Hasnain S. (2011). Phytostimulation and biofertilization in wheat by cyanobacteria. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 38 (1): 85-92.
Ito O and Watanabe I. (1985). Availability to rice plants of nitrogen fixed by Azolla. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 31 (1): 91-104.
Kalaji HM, Carpentier R, Allakhverdiev SI, Bosa K. (2012). Fluorescence parameters as early indicators of light stress in barley. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 112 (2): 1-6
Karthikeyan N, Prasanna R, Nain L, Kaushik BD. (2007). Evaluating the potential of plant growth promoting cyanobacteria as inoculants for wheat. European Journal of Soil Biology. 43 (1): 23-30.
Kumar A and Kaur R. (2014). Impact of cyanobacterial filtrate on seed germination behaviour of wheat. International Journal of Basic and Applied Biology. 1 (1): 11-15.
Kyndiah O and Rai AN. (2007). Induction of sporulation by sulphate limitation in Nostoc ANTH, a symbiotic strain capable of colonizing roots of rice plants. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 6: 57-62.
Liang Z, Pandey P, Stoerger V, Xu Y, Qiu Y, Ge Y and Schnable JC. (2018). Conventional and hyperspectral time-series imaging of maize lines widely used in field trials. Giga Science. 72 (2): 1-11.
Lu Y and Xu J. (2015). Phytohormones in microalgae: a new opportunity for microalgal biotechnology? Trends Plant Science. 20 (5): 273-282.
Maguire JD. (1962). Speed of germination aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science. 2: 176-177.
Majeed A, Muhammad Z, Islam S, Ullah Z, Ullah R. (2017). Cyanobacterial application as bio-fertilizers in rice fields: role in growth promotion and crop productivity. PSM Microbiology. 2: 47-50.
Mazhar S, Cohen JD, Hasnain S. (2013). Auxin producing non-heterocystoue cyanobacteria and their impact on the growth and endogenous auxin homeostasis of wheat. Journal of Basic Microbiology. 53 (12): 996-1003.
Mohan A and Kumar B. (2017). Growth performance and yield potential of cereal crops (wheat, maize and barley) in association with cyanobacteria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 6 (10): 744-758.
Obana S, Miyamoto K, Morita S, Ohmori M, Inubushi K. (2007). Effect of Nostoc sp. on soil characteristics, plant growth and nutrient uptake. Journal of Applied Phycology. 19 (6): 641-646.
Prasanna R, Joshi M, Rana A, Nain L. (2010). Modulation of IAA production by tryptophan and light. Polish Journal of Microbiology. 59: 99-105.
Prasanna R, Nain L, Ancha R, Shrikrishna J, Joshi M, Kaushik BD. (2009). Rhizosphere dynamics of inoculated cyanobacteria and their growth promoting role in rice crop. Egyptian Journal of Biology. 11: 26-36.
Rai AN, Singh AK, Syiem MB. (2019). Plant growth promoting Abilities in Cyanobacteria. In: Mishra AK, Tiwari DN, Rai AN (eds) Cyanobacteria, Academic Press. 459-476.
Rezaee M, Ghotbi Ravandi AA, Hassani SB, Soltani N. (2019). Phormidium improves seed germination and growth parameters of Trifolium alexandrinum in hexadecane-contaminated soil. Journal of Phycological Research. 3 (1): 312-325.
Sergeeva E, Liaimer A, Bergman B. (2002). Evidence for production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid by cyanobacteria. Planta. 215 (2): 229-238.
Shariatmadari Z, Riahi H, Hastroudi MS, Ghassempour A, Aghashariatmadary Z. (2013). Plant growth promoting cyanobacteria and their distribution in terrestrial habitats of Iran. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 59 (4): 535-547.
Singh JS, Arun K, Rai AN, Singh DP. (2016). Cyanobacteria: a precious bio-resource in agriculture, ecosystem, and environmental sustainability. Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 1-19.
Suresh A, Soundararajan S, Elavarasi S, Oscar LF, Thajuddin N. (2019). Evaluation and characterization of the plant growth promoting potentials of two heterocystous cyanobacteria for improving food grains growth. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 17: 476-652.
Tsavkelova EA, Klimova SY, Cherdyntseva TA, Netrusov AI. (2006). Hormones and hormone-like substances of microorganisms: a review. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 42 (3): 229–235.
Waterbury JB and Stanier RY. (1981). Isolation and growth of cyanobacteria from marine and hypersaline environments. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG. (Eds.). The Prokaryotes. Vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 221-223.
Zushi K, Kajiwara S, Matsuzoe N. (2012). Chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP transient as a tool to characterize and evaluate response to heat and chilling stress in tomato leaf and fruit. Scientia Horticulturae. 148: 39-46..