palette
Fatty Acids Composition of Marine Macroalgae (Review)

Abstract
Fatty acids (FA) are important nutritional substances and metabolites in living organism. Degenerative diseases related to inappropriate FA consumption form a potential death cause for two thirds of the population living in affluent, industrialized nations. Marine algae represent a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Many algal species have long been used as human food, animal fodder and source of valuable substances. In addition, algal components are of interest from a pharmaceutical point of view. Marine algae are rich in fatty acids (FAs) especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and are of potential value as sources of essential fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 series),which are important in the nutrition of humans and animals. Also the n-6/n-3 ratio of macroalgae, because of their high n-3 content, is lower than 10 which is congruent with WHO recommended. Although each phylum of marine macrophytic algae has its characteristic FA pattern but up to now, only a limited number of algal species have been investigated for their FAs composition. Hence, the objective of this review is to explain briefly synthesis and structure of FAs and also to assess the potential of several Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta macroalgae as a source of FAs especially PUFAs and very long chain PUFAs (VLCPUFAs).
Keywords
FAs, Omega-3, PUFAs, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta

References

Abou-Elwafa GSE, Shaaban M, Shaaban KA, El-Naggara MEE, Laatsch H. (2009). Three New Unsaturated Fatty Acids from the Marine Green Alga Ulva fasciata Delile. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 64b: 1199-1207.

Adam O. (1989). Linoleic and linolenic acids intake. In Galli C, Simopoulos AP (eds): "Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids: Biological effects and Nutritional Essentiality. Series A: Life Sciences, 171. New York: Plenum-Press. 391-402.

Aguilera-Morales M, Casas-Valdez M, Carrillo-Domínguez S, González-Acosta B, Pérez-Gil F. (2005). Chemical composition and microbiological assays of marine algae Enteromorpha spp. as a potential food source. Journal of Food Composition Analysis. 18: 79-88.

Banerjee K, Ghosh R, Homechaudhuri S, Mitra A. (2009). Biochemical Composition of Marine Macroalgae from Gangetic Delta at the Apex of Bay of Bengal. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 1 (5-6): 96-104.

Bhaskar N and Miyashita K. (2005). Lipid composition of Padina tetrastomatica (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta), brown seaweed of the west coast of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 52: 263-268.

Bhaskar N, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K. (2004). Comparative evaluation of fatty acid composition of different Sargassum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) species harvested from temperate and tropical waters. Journal of Aquatic Product Technology. 3: 53-70.

Bocanegra A, Bastida S, Benedi J, Rodenas S, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. (2009). Characteristics and nutritional and cardiovascular-health properties of seaweeds. Journal of Medicinal Food. 12: 236-258.

Broadhurst CL, Wang Y, Crawford MA, Cunnane SC, Parkington JE, Schmidt WF. (2002). Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food recources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B. 131: 653-673.

Brouwer I, Geelen A, Katan MB. (2006). n-3 Fatty acids, cardiac arrhythmia and fatal coronary heart disease. Progress in Lipid Research. 45 (4): 357-67.

Brown MR, Jeffrey SW, Volkman JK, Dunstan GA. (1997). Nutritional properties of microalgae for mariculture. Aquaculture. 151: 315-331.

Burdge GC, Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Williams CM, Wootton SA. (2003). Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C] α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men. British Journal of Nutrition. 90: 311-321.

Burdge GC, Jones AE, Wootton SA. (2002). Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in young men. British Journal of Nutrition. 88: 355-363.

Burtin P. (2003). Nutritional value of seaweeds. Journal of Environmental Agricultural food chemistry. 2: 498-503.

Chem SH and Chung YJ. (2002). Analysis of fatty acids by column liquid chromatography.

Analytica Chimica Acta. 456: 145-15.

Colombo ML, Rise P, Giavarini F, Sngelis LD, Galli C, Bolis CL. (2006). Macroalgae as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 61: 67-72.

Conquer JA, Tierney MC , Zecevic J, Bettger WJ, Fisher RH. (2000). Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids. 35:1305-12.

Darcy-Vrillon B. (1993). Nutritional Aspects of The Developing Use of Marine Macroalgae for the Human Food Industry. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 44 : 23-35.

Das M, Zuniga E, Ojima I. (2009). Novel taxoid-based tumor-targeting drug conjugates. Chimca Oggi. 27: 54-56.

Dawczynski C, Schubert R, Jahreis G. (2007). Amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary fiber in edible seaweed products. Food Chemistry. 103: 891-899.

Doughman SD, Krupanidhi S, Sanjeevi CB. (2007). Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oils as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA. Current Diabetes Reviews. 3: 198-203.

Durmaz Y, Duyar HA, Gokpinar S, Taskaya L, Ogretmen YO, Bandarra NM, Nunes ML. (2008). Fatty acids, α-tocopherol and total pigment contents of Cystoseira spp., Ulva spp. and Zostera spp. from Sinop Bay (Turkey). International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2 (3): 111-114.

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies NDA. (2010). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids and cholesterol. EFSA Journal. 8: 1461.

Einvik G, Kllemsdal TO, Sandvik L, Hjerkinn EM. (2010). A randomized clinical trial on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation and all-cause mortality in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. 5: 588-592.

El-Shoubaky GA, Moustafa AMY, Salem EAE. (2008). Comparative phytochemical investigation of beneficial essential Fatty Acids on a variety of marine seaweeds algae. Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2: 18-26.

Emken EA, Adolf RO, Gully RM. (1994). Dietary linoleic acid infuences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labelled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1213: 277-288.

Erkkila A, De Mello V, Risirus U, Laaksonen D. (2008). Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease, an epidemiological approach. Progress in Lipid Research. 47 (3): 172-187.

Field CJ and Schley PD. (2004). Evidence for potential mechanisms for the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on tumor metabolism and immune function: Lessons from n-3 fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79: 1190-1198.

Fleurence J, Gutbier G, Mabeau S, Leray C. (1994). Fatty acids from eleven marine macroalgae of the French Brittany coast. Journal of Applied Phycology 6: 527-532.

Floreto EAT, Hirata H, Ando S, Yamasaki S. (1993). Fatty acid composition of Ulva pertusa Kjellman (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria incurvata Okamura (Rhodophyta) in Japanese coastal water. Botanica Marina. 36: 217-222.

Galloway AWE, Britton-Simmons KH, Duggins DO, Gabrielson PW, Brett MT. (2012). Fatty acid signatures differentiate marine macrophytes at ordinal and family ranks. Journal of Phycology. 48: 956-965.

Gerster H. (1998). Can adults adequately convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaneoic acid (20: 5n-3) and docosahexanoic acid (22: 6n-3). International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. 68: 15-173.

Gill I and Valivety R. (1997). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, part 1: Occurrence, biological activities and applications. Trends in Biotechnology. 15: 401-409.

Graeve M, Kattner G, Wiencke C, Karsten U. (2002). Fatty acid composition of Arctic and Antarctic macroalgae: Indicator of phylogenetic and trophic relationships. Marine Ecology, Progress Series. 231: 67-74.

Guedes AC, Amaro HM, Malcata FX. (2011). Microalgae as sources of high added-value compounds-a brief review of recent work. Biotechnology Progress 27: 597-613.

Hamdy AEA and Dawes CJ. (1989). Proximate constituents and lipid chemistry in two species of Sargassum from the west-coast of Florida. Botanica Marina. 31: 79-81.

Hang HL and Wang BG. (2004). Antioxidant capacity and liphophilic content of seaweeds collected from the qingdao coastline. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 52: 4993-4997.

Hanson CE, Hyndes GA, Wang FW. (2010). Differentiation of benthic marine primary producers using stable isotopes and fatty acids: Implications to food web studies. Aquatic Botany, 93: 114-122.

Harwood JL and Caterson B. (2006). Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation Lipid Technology. 18: 7-10.

Harwood JL. (1984). Effects of environment on the acyl lipids of algae and higher plants. In: Siegenthaler PA, Eichenberger W, editors. Structure, Function and Metabolism of Plant Lipids. Elsevier Science Press; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 543–550.

Herbreteau F, Coffard LJM, Derrien A, De Roeck-Holzharuer Y. (1997). The fatty acid composition of five species of macroalgae. Botanica Marina. 40: 25-27.

Horrobin DF and Bennett CN. (1999). Depression and bipolar disorder: relationships to impaired fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, immunological abnormalities, cancer, ageing and osteoporosis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 60: 217-234.

Horrobin DF. (1998). The membrane phospholipid hypothesis as a biochemical basis for the neurodevelopmental concept of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 30: 193-208.

Harwood JL. (1994). Enviromental factors wWhich can alter lipid metabolism. Progress in Lipid Research. 33(1/2): 193-202.

Ivanova V, Stancheva M, Merdzhanova A. (2012). Fatty acids composition of macroalgae from Bulgarian Black Sea coast". Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry. 23 (1): 35-40.

Ivanova V, Stancheva M, Petrova D. (2013). Fatty acid composition of black sea Ulva rigida and Cystoseria crinite. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 19 (1): 42-47.

Johns RB, Nichols PD, Perry GJ. (1997). Fatty acid composition of ten marine algae from Australian waters. Phytochemistry. 18:799-802.

Kamariah B, Tan HS, Habsah M. (2012). Identification and Characterization Study of Fatty Acids Composition in Dictyota dichotoma and Sargassum granuliferum of Nunuyan Island, Sabah. International Annual Symposium on Sustainability Science and Management. 688-693.

Kamenarska Z, Dimitrova-Konakliela S, Stefanov K, Najdenski H, Tzvetkova I, Popov S. (2002). Comparative study on the volatile compounds from Black Sea brown algae. Botanica Marina. 45: 502-509.

Kawagishi H, Miyazawa T, Kume H, Arimoto Y, Inakuma T. (2002). Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors. Journal of Natural Products. 65: 1712 -1714.

Khotimchenko S, Vaskovsky V. and Titlyanova T. (2002). Fatty acids of marine algae from the Pacific coast of North California. Botanica Marina. 45: 17-22.

Khotimchenko SV and Gusarova IS. (2004). Red algae of peter the great bay as a source of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. Russian Journal of Marine Biology. 30 (3): 183-187.

Khotimchenko SV. (1991). Fatty acid composition of seven Sargassum species. Phytochemistry. 30 (8): 2639-2641.

Khotimchenko SV. (1993). Fatty acids of green macrophytic algae from the sea of Japan. Phytochemistry. 32: 1203-1207.

Khotimchenko SV. (1995). Fatty acid composition of green algae of the genus Caulerpa. Botanica Marina. 38: 509-512.

Khotimchenko SV. (1998). Fatty acids of brown algae from the Russian Far East. Phytochemistry. 49: 2363-2369.

Kohno H, Suzucki R, Noguchi R, Hosakawa M, Miyashita K, Tanaka T. (2002). Dietary Conjugated Linolenic Acid Inhibits Azoxymethane‐induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 93: 133-142.

Krauss-Etschmann S, Shadid R, Campoy C, Hoster E, Demmelmair H, Jimenez M, Gil A, Rivero M, Veszprémi B, Decsi T, Koletzko BV. (2007). Effects of fish oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal fetal plasma concentration of Decosahexanenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic acid: a European randomized multicenter trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85: 1392-1400.

Kumari P, Kumar M, Gupta V, Reddy CRK, Jha B. (2010). Tropical marine macroalgae as potential sources of nutritionally important PUFAs. Food Chemistry. 120: 749-757.

Kumari P, Reddy C, Jha B. (2011). Comparative evaluation and selection of a method for lipid and fatty acid extraction from macroalgae. Analytical Biochemistry. 415: 134-144.

Li X, Fan X, Han L, Lou Q. (2002). Fatty acids of some algae from the Bohai Sea. Phytochemistry. 59: 157-161.

Lima-Filho JVM, Carvalho AFFU, Freitas SM, Melo VMM. (2002). Antibacterial activity of extracts of six macroalgae from the northeastern brazilian coast. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 33: 311-313.

Lindequist U and Schweder T. (2001). Marine Biotechnology. In Biotechnology; Rehm HJ, Reed G. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim Eds, Germany. 10: 441-484.

Manivannan K, Thirumaran G, Karthikai Devi G, Hemalatha A, Anantharaman P. (2008). Biochemical Composition of Seaweeds from Mandapam Coastal Regions along Southeast Coast of India. American-Eurasian Journal of Botany. 1 (2): 32-37.

Marszalek JR and Lodish HF. (2005). Docosahexaenoic acid, fatty acid-interacting proteins, and neuronal function: breast milk and fish are good for you. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 21: 633-657.

Matanjun P, Mohamed S, Mustapha NM, Muhammad K. (2009). Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. Journal of Applied Phycology. 21:75-80.

Mishra YK, Temelli F, Ooraikul Shacklock PF, Craigie JS. (1993). Lipids of the red algae Palmaria palmata. Botanica Marina. 36: 169-174.

Mozaffarian D and Wu JH. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease effects on risk factors, molecular pathways and clinical events. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 58: 2047-2067.

Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Frank BH, Stampfer MJ, Willet WC, Siscovick DS, Rimm EB. (2005). Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation. 111:157-164.

Muller H, Kirkhus B, Pedersen JI. (2001). Serum cholesterol predictive equations with special emphasis on trans and saturated fatty acids. An analysis from designed controlled studies. Lipids. 36: 783-791.

Murakami K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Arakawa M. (2010). Higher Fish and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acid intake and Depressive symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study. Pediatrics. 126: 623-630.

Myers RA and Worm B. (2000). Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature. 423:280-283.

Narayan B, Miyashita K, Hosakawa M. (2004). Comparative evaluation of fatty acid composition of different Sargassum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) species harvested from temperate and tropical waters. Journal Aquatic Food Product Technology. 13: 53-70.

Nordy A and Dyerberg J. (1989). Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Journal of Internal Medicine. 225: 81-83.

Okuyama H, Kobayashi T,Watanabe S. (1997). Carcinogenesis and metastasis are affected by dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. 509-512.

Ortiz J, Romero N, Robert P, Araya J, Lopez-Hernández J, Bozzo C, Navarrete E, Osorio A, Rios A. (2006). Dietary fiber, amino acid, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the edible seaweeds Ulva lactuca and Durvillaea antarctica. Food Chemistry. 99:98-104.

Patterson E, Wall R, Fitzgerald GF, Ross, RP, Stanton C. (2012). Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 526-539.

Patterson RE, Flatt SW, Newman VA, Natarjan L, Rock CL, Thomson C.A, Caan BJ, Parker BA, Pierce JP. (2011). Marine fatty acid intake is associated with Breast cancer prognosis. Journal of Nutrition . 141: 201-206.

Pereira H, Barreira L, Figueiredo F, Custodio L, Vizetto-Duarte C, Polo C, Resek E, Engelen A, Varela J. (2012). Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications. Marine Drugs. 10: 1920-1935.

Plaza M, Herrero M, Cifuentes A, Ibáñez E. (2009). Innovative natural functional ingredients from microalgae. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 57: 7159-7170.

Pulz O and Gross W. (2004). Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 65: 635-648.

Radwan SS. (1991). Sources of C20-polyunsaturated fatty acids for biotechnological use. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 35: 421-430.

Ratana AP and Chirapart A. (2006). Nutritional evaluation of tropical green seaweeds. Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science. 40: 75-83.

Rustan AC and Drevon CA. (2005). Fatty Acids: Structures and Properties. Encyclopedia of life sciences. John Wiley & Sons. 1-7.

Salem N, Simopoulos AP, Galli C, Lagarde M, Knapp HR. 1996. Fatty acids and lipids from cell biology to human disease. Lipids. 31 (suppl): S1-S326.

Sanchez-Machado D, Lopez-Cervantes J, Lopez-Hernandez J, Paseiro-Losada P. (2004). Fatty acids, total lipid, protein and ash contents of processed edible seaweeds. Food Chemistry. 85: 439-444.

Schmitz G and Ecker J. (2008). The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Progress in Lipid Research. 47: 147-155.

Seidel V and Taylor PW. (2004). In vitro activity of extracts and constituents of Pelagonium against rapidly growing mycobacteria. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 23(6): 613-619.

Simopoulos A, Leaf A, Salem N. (2000). Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 63 (3): 119-121.

Simopoulos AP and Bazan NG. (2009). Omega-3 fatty acids, the brain and retina. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetic. 99: 1-24

Simopoulos AP, Leaf A, Salem N. (1999). Workshop on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 18: 487-489.

Simopoulos AP. (2002). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed. Pharmacother. 56: 365-379.

Simopoulos AP. (2008). The importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 233: 674-688.

Simopoulos AP and Bazan NG. (2009). Omega-3 fatty acids, the brain and retina. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetic. 99. 1-24.

Sinclair AJ, Begg D, Mathai M, Weisinger RS. (2007). Omega 3 fatty acids in the brain: review of studies in depression. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 16: 391-397.

Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DM, Mohammed BS., Rankin D, Rennie MJ, Mittendorfer B. (2011). Dietary Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93: 402-412.

Sun CQ, Connor CJO, Roberton AM. (2003). Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 36: 9-17.

Swanson D, Block R, Mousa SA. (2012). Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, health and benefits through out life. Advances in Nutrition. 3 (1): 1-7.

Tabarsa M, Rezaei M, Ramezanpour Z, Waaland JR, Rabiei R. (2012). Fatty acids, amino acids, mineral contents, and proximate composition of some brown seaweeds. Journal of Phycology. 48: 285-292.

Takagi T, Asahi M, Itabashi Y. (1985). Fatty acid composition of twelve algae from Japanese waters. Yukagaky. 34: 1008-1012.

Terry P, Lichtenstein P, Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Wolk A. (2001). Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Lancet. 357: 1764-1766.

Van Ginneken VJT, Helsper JPFG, de Visser W, van Keulen, Brandenburg WA. (2011). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas. Lipids in Health and Disease. 10: 104.

Vaskovsky VE, Khotimchenko SV, Xia B, Hefang L. (1996). Polar lipids and fatty acids of some marine macrophytes from the Yellow Sea. Phytochemistry. 42: 1347-1356.

Ward OP and Singh A. (2005). Omega-3/6 fatty acids: alternative sources of production. Process Biochemistry. 40: 3627-3652.

Worm B, Hilborn R, Baum JK, Branch TA, Collie JS, Costello C, Fogarty MJ, Fulton EA, Hutchings JA, Jennings S, Jensen OP, Lotze HK, Mace PM, McClanahan TR, Minto C, Palumbi SR, Parma AM, Ricard D, Rosenberg AA, Watson R, Zeller D. (2009). Rebuilding Global Fisheries. Science. 325: 578-585.

Worm B, Hilborn R, Baum JK, Branch TA, Collie JS, Costello C, Fogarty MJ., Fulton EA, Hutchings JA, Jennings S, Jensen OP, Lotze HK, Mace PM, McClanahan TR, Minto C, Palumbi SR, Parma AM, Xu XQ, Tran VH, Kraft G, Beardall J. (1998). Fatty acids of six Codium species from southeast Australia. Phytochemistry. 48: 1335-1339.

Worm B and Myers RA. (2003). Meta-analysis of cod–shrimp interactions reveals top–down control in oceanic food webs. Ecology. 84:162-173

Zheng CJ, Yoo J, Lee T, Cho H, Kim Y, Kim W. (2005). Fatty acid synthesis is a target for antibacterial activity of unsaturated fatty acids. FEBS Letters. 579: 5157-5162..


Refbacks
  • There are currently no refbacks.